How Bath Towel Is Made – Materials, Manufacturing Course Of, Making, History, Used, Composition, Product, Industry

Bath towels are woven items of fabric both cotton or cotton-polyester which might be used to absorb moisture on the body after bathing. Bath towels are sometimes sold in a set with face towels and wash cloths and are at all times the most important of the three towels. Bath towels are typically woven with a loop or pile that’s tender and absorbent and is thus used to wick the water away from the physique. Particular looms referred to as dobby looms are used to make this cotton pile.

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Bath towels are usually of a single color but may be decorated with machine-sewn embroidery, woven in fancy jacquard patterns (pre-decided computer program driven designs) and even printed in stripes. Since towels are uncovered to a lot water and are washed on scorching-water wash settings extra incessantly than other textiles, printed towels could not retain their pattern very lengthy. If you have any issues regarding where by and how to use microfiber bath towel towel [click the up coming website page], you can contact us at our web-site. Most towels have a two selvage edges or finished woven edges alongside the sides and are hemmed (minimize and sewn down) at the top and bottom. Some toweling manufacturers produce the yarn used for the toweling, weave the towels, dye them, cut and sew hems, and ready them for distribution. Others buy the yarn already spun from other wholesalers and solely weave the toweling.

Historical past

Until the early nineteenth century, when the textile industry mechanized, bath toweling could possibly be comparatively expensive to purchase or time-consuming to create. There is some query how necessary these sanitary linens have been for the typical individual-in spite of everything, bathing was not nearly as universally widespread 200 years ago as it’s as we speak! Most nine-teenth century toweling that survives is, certainly, toweling most likely used behind or on top of the washstand, the piece of furniture that held the wash basin and pitcher with water in the days before indoor plumbing. Much of this toweling was hand-woven, plain-woven natural linen. Fancy ladies’ magazines and mail order catalogs characteristic fancier jacquard-woven coloured linen patterns (particularly pink and white) however these had been extra more likely to be hand and face cloths. It wasn’t until the 1890s that the more smooth and absorbent terry cloth changed the plain linen toweling.

Because the cotton industry mechanized on this nation, toweling material could be bought by the yard as well as in completed goods. By the 1890s, an American home-wife might go to the final retailer or order through the mail both woven, sewn, and hemmed Turkish toweling (terry cloth) or may buy terry cloth by the ‘y’ard, cut it to the suitable bath towel measurement her household preferred, and hem it herself. A wide range of toweling was accessible-diaper weaves, huck-abacks, “crash” toweling-primarily in cotton as linen was not commercially woven on this nation in nice amount by the 1890s. Weaving factories started mass production of terry cloth towels by the end of the nine-teenth century and have been producing them in comparable fashion ever since.

Uncooked Materials

Raw supplies embrace cotton or cotton and polyester, depending on the composition of the towel in production. Some towel factories purchase the first raw material, cotton, in 500 lb (227 kg) bales and spin them with synthetics as a way to get the type of yarn they want for production. However, some factories purchase the yarn from a supplier. These yarn spools of cotton-polyester mix yarn is bought in big quantities in 7.5 lb (3.Four kg) spools of yarn. A single spool of yarn unravels to 66,000 yd (60,324 m) of thread.

Yarn must be coated or sized to ensure that it to be woven extra simply. One such trade coating incorporates PVA starch, urea, and wax. Bleaches are generally used to whiten a towel earlier than dyeing it (whether it is to be dyed). Again, these bleaches vary relying on the producer, but may include as many as 10 elements (a few of them proprietary) together with hydrogen peroxide, a caustic defoamer, or if the towel is to stay white, an optical brightener to make the white look brighter. Artificial or chemical dyes, of complicated composition, which make towels both colorfast and vivid, may also be used.


Most towels will not be specifically designed in complicated patterns. The vast majority is easy terry towels woven on dobby looms with loop piles, sewn edges at prime and backside. Sizes range as do colors depending on the order. More and more, white or stock towels are despatched to wholesalers or others to decorate with computer-pushed embroidery or decorate with applique fabric or decoration. This happens in a special location and is often done by one other company.

The Manufacturing



– 1 As talked about above, some factories spin their very own yarn for bath towels. If this is finished on the factory, the manufacturer receives enormous 500 lb (227 kg) bales of both excessive or “middling grade” (of medium high quality) cotton for conversion into yarn (quality is determined by the manufacturer and high quality of the towel in manufacturing). These bales are broken open by an automatic Uniflock machine that nips a bit off the highest of each bale, opens it up and then lays it down. The Uniflock opening machine blends the cotton fibers collectively by repeatedly beating it so impurities fall out or are filtered out (these bales contain many impurities within the uncooked cotton). The more pure fibers are blown by tubes to a mixing unit the place the cotton is blended collectively before they are spun. Increased high quality towels use cotton with fibers that are blended collectively three times before spinning. In some factories, the cotton is blended with polyester throughout this blending process.

– 2 The blended fibers are then blown via tubes to carding machines the place revolving cylinders with wire teeth are used to straighten the fibers and proceed to take away impurities before spinning. The cotton fibers, whereas not but yarn, are shaping up into parallel fibers in preparation for spinning.

– 3 These parallel fibers are then condensed into a sliver-a twisted rope of cotton fibers. These slivers are sent into one other machine in which they are blended again and sent between different rollers for straightening. The ultimate goal is lengthy, straight, parallel fibers because they produce stronger yarns. (Stronger yarns require much less twisting which also produces robust yarns however makes them less smooth and absorbent.) The fibers are wound on a large roll and despatched on a cart and fed into the combing machine.

– Four Fibers are combed here, additional straightening the fibers with a finer set of wire teeth than used on the carding machine. Combing removes the shorter fibers, which are coarser and woollier, leaving the finer, longer, silkier cotton fibers for spinning into yarn. As soon as combed, the fibers are formed right into a twisted rope sliver once more.

– 5 The slivers travel to roving machines the place the fibers are additional twisted and straightened and formed into rovings. The roving frame also slightly twists the fibers. The result’s a protracted roving of cotton, which is then wound onto bobbins in the ultimate step before spinning.

– 6 Now the roving is prepared for spinning. The bobbin is spun on a ring-spinning machine, which mechanically attracts out or pulls the cotton roving out into a single strand. The fibers primarily catch one another to type one steady thread and twists the thread slightly as it is pulled or Once the toweling is made, it is wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It is then transported to bleaching as huge rolls of fabric and put into a water bath with bleaching chemicals resembling hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and other proprietary elements. All toweling have to be dyed pure white earlier than it’s dyed any coloration.

spun. Once the yarn is spun, it is mechanically wound on massive wheels that resemble rounds of cheese when full of thread.


– 7 Warp is longitudinal threads in a bit of woven materials which might be tightly stretched or warped on a beam. Latitudinal threads known as weft or filler are passed beneath and over the warp to form the fabric. The massive spools of simply-spun cotton are able to be warped or wound on a beam that might be inserted into the loom for weaving. If the yarn is purchased, the 7.5 lb (3.4 kg) spools are readied for warping. A warping beam is then warped during which threads are anchored and wrapped to a large beam in tons of of parallel rows. Totally different towel widths require different numbers of warp threads.- 8 These huge beams, filled with wrapped warp threads, are positioned right into a rack that holds up to 12 beams and sized in preparation for weaving. The threads have to be sized or stiffened to make the piece simpler to weave. PVA starch, urea, and wax are rolled onto and pressed into the yarn. The threads are then run over drying cans-Teflon-coated cans with steam heat emanating from with-in. This helps to dry the warp threads quickly. (1,000 warp ends are pulled over 9 cans to dry.) These beams, with coated threads, at the moment are sent to the looms.


– 9 The beams are picked up by a pallet jack or hydraulic lift truck and transported to looms. These looms vary in width however could also be as slender as eighty five in (216 cm) or as wide as 153 in (389 cm). (Not surprisingly, the wider the loom, the slower the weaving because it takes longer for weft threads to cross the warp.) The beams are lifted onto the looms mechanically with a warp jack, which might bear the load and size of the beam.- 10 Towels are woven on dobby looms, that means every loom has two sets or warp and thus two warp beams-one warp is called the ground warp and types the body of the towel and the other is known as the pile warp and it produces the terry pile or loop. Each set of warp threads is carefully fed by means of a set of metallic eyes and microfiber beach towel is hooked up to a harness. (Harnesses are separate, parallel frames that may change of their vertical relationships to one another.) These harnesses mechanically elevate and lower these warp threads so that the weft or filler may be passed between them. The intersection of the warp and weft is woven fabric. The filler yarn is programmed so that it’s loosely laid into the woven fabric. When this free filler is crushed or pressed into the fabric, the slack is pushed up turning into a bit of loop. After being dyed, the towel is hemmed and cut into standardized sizes.

Shuttles, which carry the filler threads, are truly shot across these large looms at prime-speeds-these towel-making looms could have 18 shuttles fired throughout the warp from a firing cylinder. One shuttle follows right behind the next. As soon as the one shuttle shoots across the warp threads, the shuttle drops down and is transported back to firing cylinder and is shot across once more. A typical towel-weaving machine has 350 shuttle insertions in a single minute-almost six shuttles fired throughout every second. Thus, towels are woven very quickly on these large mechanized dobby looms. In one small towel-making manufacturing facility, 250 dozen bath towels may be made in one loom in a single week-and there are 50 looms within the factory.


– 11 As soon as the toweling is made (it’s one lengthy terry cloth roll and has no beginning or end), it’s wound on an off-loom take-up reel. It is then transported to bleaching as enormous rolls of fabric and put into a water bath with bleaching chemicals corresponding to hydrogen peroxide, caustic defoamers, and other proprietary ingredients. All toweling have to be dyed pure white before it’s dyed any shade. The wet toweling laden with chemicals is then subjected to tremendously high temperatures. The heat makes the chemicals react, bleaching the towel. The roll is then washed not less than once and as many as 3 times in a big washer to get all chemicals out of the toweling. The toweling is dried, and whether it is to stay white toweling, it is able to be reduce at the top and backside, lock-stitched sewn, and have a label connected (all of this is done with one machine).


– 12 If it is to be dyed, the massive, dried uncut rolls are taken to massive vats of chemical dyes, which have proven over time to provide colorfast toweling after extensive residential laundering. After being immersed within the vat, the toweling is eliminated and pressed between two heavy rollers which forces the dye down into the toweling. An intensive steaming units the colour. The toweling is again steam-dried, fluffed in the drying course of, and then the dyed towels are ready for reducing, hemming, and labeling.

Chopping, folding, and packaging

– thirteen Remaining visible inspection of the minimize and hemmed towels occurs and they are handfolded and conveyed to packaging, the place computerized packaging tools types a bag around the towels and UPC labels are connected to the baggage. These packaged towels are despatched to the inventory room, awaiting transport out of the plant.

Quality Management

Towels are rigorously checked for high quality control throughout the manufacturing process. If yarn is bought, it’s randomly checked for weight and have to be the standard established by the corporate (lighter yarn spools point out the yarn is thinner than desired and will not make as sturdy toweling). Bleach and dye vats are periodically checked for appropriate chemical structure.

Through the weaving course of, some corporations cross the cloth over a lighted inspection desk. Here the weavers and quality inspectors monitor the towel for weaving imperfections. Barely unevenly woven towels may be straightened out and touched up. But those that can’t may be labeled “seconds” or imperfect or fully rejected by the corporate. As in all aspects of the method, visual checks are a key to high quality control-all concerned in the method understand minimal requirements and monitor the product at all times.


Doubtlessly harmful byproducts are sometimes mixed in the water that is used to bleach, wash, and dye the towel fabric. Particularly, the bleaching process contains components (peroxides and other caustics) that can not be discharged untreated into any water provide. Many toweling factories run their own water treatment plants to insure that the water the plant discharges meets minimum standards for pH, temperature, etc.

Where to Study More


Montgomery Ward & Co. Spring and Summer season 1895 Catalogue and Purchaser’s Information. NY: Dover Publications, Inc. 1969.

Tate, Blair. The Warp: A Weaving Reference. Ashville, NC: Lark Books, 1991.


Fieldcrest Cannon. “The Making of Royal Velvet Towels.” Unpublished script for a video on towel manufacturing. Kannapolis, NC, 1998.